By: Rindrasih Erda
Several influential papers have enhanced our understanding of the highly complex and intertwined issues of sustainable tourism, quality of life, equity and the environment (Butler, 1998). It is argued that sustainable tourism needs to be conceptualized in a more comprehensive way so as to appraise meaningfully, and critically. It is interconnectedness with the natural, social and economic elements at a multiple scales and time periods. Sustainable tourism therefore can be best construed either as “adaptive paradigm” (Hunter, 1997) or as “adaptive management” which addresses issues of unpredictability of events.
In general sustainable tourism is related to the climate and weather. The relationship between climate and tourism has traditionally been studied in many perspectives. In this paper the study will focus in the tourism activities and the element which support the tourism sectors. Pierce (1981), highlight that there are five elements of tourism that are; attraction, transportation, accommodation, facility, and infrastructure. In order to build the critical thinking of the environmental condition in the real life I choose Bali and the tourism activities to be my case study. I choose Bali for my case study because Bali is the most popular tourist destination in Indonesia. It has many environmental problems. I try to find the footprint of Bali tourism activities that I suppose it contribute to the global warming. Therefore I use the five elements of tourism from Pierce (1981) to keep my way on track. At the recent time some people believe that the earth’s climate is predicted to change. They said that human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases. The greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. There is no dispute about the heat-trapping property of greenhouse. However, there is uncertainty about exactly how and when the earth’s climate will respond to improve concentration of green house gases. The observations indicate that detectable changes are under way. There most likely will be increases in temperature and changes in precipitation, soil moisture, and sea level which could have adverse on many ecological systems, as well as human health and the economy.
The impact of climate change can be derived in increasing of temperature, increasing sea level, increasing of carbon dioxide and increasing precipitation and drought. Here are some evidence mitigate by IPCC.
a. Increasing temperature
It is widely believe that the temperature of the earth is getting high. Scientists forecast that the earth’s average surface temperature will rise anywhere between two and ten degrees Fahrenheit between now and the middle of the century. According to the IPCC report, 2007, the total temperature increase from 1850 – 1899 to 2001 – 2005 is 0.76oC [0.57 oC – 0.95 oC]. Moreover, the observations since 1961 show that the average temperature of the global ocean has increased to the depths of at least 3000 m and that the ocean has been absorbing more that 80% of the heat added to the climate system.
b. Increasing the sea level
The effect of climate change can also be seen in the increasing of sea level. Mountain glaciers and snow cover have declined on average in both hemispheres. Widespread decreases in glaciers and ice caps have contributed to sea level rise (ice caps do not include contributions from the green land Antarctic ice sheets). Based on IPCC, new data since the TAR now show that losses from the sheets of Greenland and Antarctica have very likely contributed to sea level rise over 1993 to 2003. The flow speed of Greenland and Antarctic outlet glaciers has increased. It drains ice from interior and of the ice sheets.
Global average sea level rose an average rate of 1.8 [1.3 to 2.3] mm per year over 1961 to 2003. The rate was faster over 1993 to 2003; about 3.1 [2.4 to 3.8] mm per year. Whether the faster rate for 1993 to 2003 reflects decadal variability or an increase in the longer term trend is unclear. There is high confidence that the rate of observed sea level rise increased from the 19th to the 20th century. The total 20th century rise is estimated to be 0.17 [0.12 to 0.22] m.
c. Increasing of Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. The global atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased from a pre-industrial value of about 280 ppm to 379 ppm3 in 2005. The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide in 2005 exceeds by far the natural range over the last 650,000 years (180 to 300 ppm) as determined from ice cores.
d. Increasing precipitation and drought
Extra tropical storm tracks are projected to move pole ward, with consequent changes in wind, precipitation and temperature patterns, continuing the broad pattern of observed trends over the last half century. Since the TAR, there is an improving understanding of projected patterns of precipitation. Increases in the amount of precipitation are very likely in high latitudes, while decreases are likely in most subtropical land regions continuing observed patterns in recent trends.
Clearly, economic activities are affected by and influence climate and weather and, of these, outdoor ones, like tourism, are a case in point. Tourism can be defined as;
movement in space undertaken by man in order to use other spaces as places of leisure. Tourists wish to enjoy the different geophysical resources or attractions offered by the place they have traveled to, or observe the genealogical elements contained therein; that is, they want to admire the historical remains with a certain monumental, historical or cultural value that survive in the area (Sa´nchez 1985:104 in Gomez, 2005).
Therefore tourism necessitates and uses a geographical space. This space has a physical substrate, the natural environment, consisting of physical and biological elements (its climate, geology, topography, flora and fauna, etc.); and also has elements created by human activities. This geographical space (and its constituent elements, including climate) can act simultaneously as a factor influencing the location of tourism, as a resource supporting a wide range of activities, and as an attraction in its own right.
Both economic and other factors influence where tourism is located, although the former dominates in most decisions concerning location. Two classes of economic factors can be highlighted (Butler, 1986 in Gomez, 2005): spatial and environmental. The former are associated with distance, accessibility, transport costs, the presence of markets, the concentration of economic activities, land prices, and competition with other activities, while the latter are associated with natural and cultural variations from one place to another. Natural environmental factors that are particularly prone to variation are climate, geology, hydrology, soil, topography, fauna, and natural vegetation. Cultural environmental factors include archaeological remains, historical monuments, museums, crafts, folklore, and traditional festive celebrations.
Even though space and environment should be considered as interacting factors, in some places the location of certain resorts can be largely explained in terms of environmental factors, while in other places location can be mainly attributed to space parse, related to market accessibility and other concentrations of economic activity (Burkart and Medlik 1986; Butler 1986; Cazes, Lanquar and Raynouard 1980; Defert 1954; Pearce 1981; Vera, Lo´pez, Marchena and Anto´n 1997).
To understand the footprint of tourism activities in Bali, this paper need the framework to maintain the study on track. I use the Pearce (1981) statement about the tourism activities element. They are attraction, transportation, accommodation, facility, and infrastructure.
THE ELEMENTS OF TOURISM IN BALI
Bali is the most popular tourism sites in South East Asia where lies in Republic of Indonesia (RI). Based on the survey from Travel + Leisure Magazine New York (2006), Bali is the most interesting tourism site in the world. It can be stated based on the natural view that beautiful and keep maintain in nature. Keeping the tradition and religion Bali become a leading of tourism destination in South East Asia. It supported by beautiful beaches, deeply culture and consistency of religion, which open the friendly atmosphere for people to come. The following paragraphs explain about the several information of Bali Island, including geography, economy, biodiversity and population.
Geographically, Bali is located in 8°25′23″ South Latitude and 115°14′55″ West Longitude. It island of Bali is part of the Republic of Indonesia and is located 8 to 9 degrees south of the equator between Java in the West and Lombok and the rest of the Lesser Sunda Islands (Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba and Timor) in the East. Flying time to Jakarta is about 1.5 hours, to Singapore and Perth (Australia) 2.5 and 3 hours, to Hong Kong about 4.5 hours, and to Sydney/Melbourne about 5.5 to 6 hours. The island of Bali has an area of only 5,632 square kilometers (2,175 square miles) and measures just 55 miles (90 kilometers) along the north-south axis and less than about 90 miles (140 km) from East to West. Bali has a length 153 km and width 112 km. It lies ± 3,2 km from Java Island.
The temperature of Bali Island is between 20 to 33 degree Celsius and 68 to 93 degrees Fahrenheit year-round. From December to March, the West monsoon can bring heavy showers and high humidity, but usually days are sunny and the rains start during the night and pass quickly. From June to September the humidity is low, and it can be quite cool in the evenings. During this time of the year, you will have hardly any rain in the coastal areas.
The wide variety of tropical plants is surprising. There are huge banyan trees in villages and temple grounds, tamarind trees in the North, clove trees in the highlands, acacia trees, flame trees, and mangroves in the South. In Bali grow a dozen species of coconut palms and even more varieties of bamboo. The flower in Bali is in anywhere, such as jasmine, and water lilies. Magnolia, frangipani, and a variety of orchids are found in many front yards and gardens, along roads, and in temple grounds. Elephants and tigers do not exist anymore in Bali since early this century. Wildlife, however, includes various species of monkeys, civets, barking deer and mouse deer, and 300 species of birds including wild fowl, dollar birds, blue kingfishers, sea eagles, sandpipers, white herons and egrets, cuckoos, wood swallows, sparrows, and starlings. Bali’s fishing industry and seaweed farming provide other products, which are important exports.
The main of economy activities in Bali are agriculture and tourism. Both of them suspend in the weather and climate. In the southern part of Bali most jobs are to be found such as hotel and tourist industry the textile and garment industry, and in many small scale and home industries producing handicrafts and souvenirs. On the other textiles, garments and handicrafts have become the backbone of Bali’s economy. It is providing 300,000 jobs, and exports have been increasing by around 15% per year to over US $ 400 million. Based on the Statistic of Indonesia Bali Province (2006) textiles and garments contribute about 45% and wood products including statues, furniture and other handicrafts 22% to the province total income from exports. In addition, silver work is ranked third (4,65%) with 5,000 workers employed.
The agriculture in Bali based on the availability of water from precipitation in season because the agriculture is not aerobic agriculture, which needs water to grow. Moreover, tourism sector is based on the clean, comfort, fresh air and beautiful view of nature. The activities of tourism show the number of tourist or visitor who visit Bali. The data from Statistic of Bali Province 2004 shows that in 2004 the trade, hotel, restaurant, transportation and communication is decline from 4.65 quintillion to 2.24 quintillion rupiahs for trade, hotel and restaurant, and for transportation and communication is decline from 5.17 quintillion rupiahs to 2,24 quintillion rupiahs. Hence, the data shows that the product of electricity, gas and water supply from 2003 to 2004 is increase from 4.49 quintillion rupiahs to 7.56 quintillion rupiahs. Therefore, it is clearly understand that the electricity, gas and water supply is the highest growth from 2003 – 2004.
According to Statistic of Indoneisa Bali Province 2007, Bali’s population has grown to over 3 million people. Most people live in the coastal areas in the South, and the island’s largest town and administrative center is fast growing Denpasar with a population of now over 370,000. The villages between the town of Ubud and Denpasar, Kuta (including Jimbaran, Tuban, and Legian, Seminyak, Basangkasa, etc), Sanur, and Nusa Dua are spreading rapidly in all directions, and before long the whole area from Ubud in the North to Sanur in the East, Berawa/Canggu in the West, and Nusa Dua in the South will be urbanized.
The tourist attraction in Bali is dominated by the combination between culture and nature. Most of them combine natural appearance like as lake, beach, mountain, sun, park, animal and jungle. The natural attraction means it depend on the climate and weather. The most interesting value of Bali for tourism attraction is the weather, which is comfort and warm. It becomes the attraction for tourist. Bali has 54 tourism destinations. It is based on both natural attraction and human made attraction. The natural attraction is the domination of attraction in Bali especially beaches.
Tourism cannot be separated from the transportation. It is the backbone of tourism activities. Conflict between transportation and environment is perhaps the most anticipated in developing tourism. The more transportation burn the fossil fuel is the more emissions were produced in particular the air travel transportation.
Penner et al. (1999) and G¨ossling & Peeters (2007) indicate that air travel contribute in global climate change as much as 3.5% – 4.6% of the total emissions. However, an effort to reduce emission from air travel is still ignored. He argued that improving air travel technologies and management can significantly reduce emissions affecting climate change up to 20% by 2050.
In relation to aviation and climate change, the discourse is produced largely by those involved in International Air Travel and Climate Change 353 the aviation industry. G¨ossling and Peeters (2007) discuss some of the common discourse around air travel, for example, ‘air travel is energy efficient’ and ‘air travel is economically important’. They conclude that the current discourse on air travel – and its failure to represent scientific understanding – constitutes a major impediment to behavioral changes by individuals.
Transportation becomes the main activities in Bali which support the pollution and emission. It declares to be the main factor of greenhouse gases. In Bali, the car is dominated using fossil oil energy. It adds the number of gases in the air. Besides car for transportation in tourism activities there is another movement that produces a lot of pollution that is air craft. Figure 5 show the frequency of passenger traffic at Ngurah Rai Airport by month. In 2004 the total of passenger who comes in Ngurah Rai Airport is 301.4276 people.
The use of energy in hotel activities also contributes significantly to the climate change. There are a lot of hotel and restaurant activities which is use the high electricity such as; lighting, cleaning, machine and cooking. Here is the data of the average length of stay of domestic guest as classified hotel by month in 2004. In 2004, the average length of stay of domestic guests at classified hotels is 3.13 days. It means there are 75 hours 50 minutes of all energy in hotel is used to service the passengers.
From the five element of tourism facility may be the low-impact to climate change. Facility in this study means, the facility in its destination. For instance; rest room, pedestrian road, park area, chair, etc. However, the available of facility for tourist purpose as service gods could support the using of natural resources. It can be direct and non direct uses. The example of direct uses is the use of land for park. Before it is use for park the vegetation cover the land. The example of non direct uses of natural resources can be defined like as; the uses of tissue for toilet paper, the uses of electricity which is basically produce by the burning of coal for generator.
A number of authors, including Gunn (1988) and Inskeep (1991), have cited the infrastructure base of a country as a potential determinant of the attractiveness of a destination. An important component of this total in any country is transport infrastructure, which may be broadly viewed as the sum of road, seaport, and airport facilitation. This forms an integral part of the tourism package: sound road infrastructure enhances accessibility of tourists to different parts of the destination country, while sound airport infrastructure ensures that tourists experience a comfortable transition from the plane into the borders of the destination country and vice versa.
In Bali, the footprint of tourism activities in the infrastructure site can be defined on the impact of road. Most of the destination in Bali is the beach which is need road to connect from beach to beach or from destination to destination. The demand of road is broadly bigger since the number of passenger getting increase. Unfortunately, the road can create impact to the sprawl. Opening the road in the new place could open the opportunity to get space in the area that is not accessible before. People and market could build house, hotel, restaurant, and others tourism service. Consequently, it may impact to the ability to catch the water. Hence, the movement of vehicle could be other effect for environment.
THE ENVIRONMENT PROBLEM
It is the ironic fact that tourism has historically been responsible for a range of environmental problems (Portras, 2003). Over utilization of resources particularly in the high seasons arises because the environment, like other intangible commodities, is zero prices (Buhalis & Fletcher, 1995), especially where tourism planning and management is limited. It is for this reason that it is difficult to assess the impact that tourism has on the environment. Furthermore, it is difficult to isolate causes of environmental degradation within the complexity of tourism and the wider community. Common environmental impacts of tourism include:
• Transformation of the environment due to consumption of natural lands for construction of tourism facilities; consequent irreversible destruction of flora and fauna (loss of biodiversity) from uncontrolled recreational activities.
• Pollution resulting from increased tourist traffic, in the form of litters which can have effects on and physical and aesthetic degradation of the landscape; water pollution through discharge of inadequately treated affluent; air and noise pollution from increased vehicular traffic.
• Stress on water source due to increased tourists from local sources which are often limited (this may be of more concern in agricultural-dependent areas that must carefully manage water usage).
Relating to the space, tourism activities need travel to reach the area. There are six nationalities which come to Bali in 2007 from January to August. Asia Pacific nationality excluding ASEAN is the biggest number of tourist that comes to Bali. It is total 58,72%. The second is Europe countries 25,78%, the third is ASEAN countries 9,79%, the fourth is America 4,98%, the fifth 0,61% Africa and the last is Middle East 0,12%.
According to Bappeda (Regional Planning Board) Bali 2006, in the last seven years the total abrasion to the shore is 35,000 km from the 430,000 km of the beach. If the number is divided by years, so that the speed of abrasion is 5,000 km per years. Bappeda stated that the most sites which the most serious condition is Buleleng. The average of abrasion in Buleleng is 2,722 km each year. Moreover, Klungkung, Tabanan, Gianyar, Denpasar and Jembrana experience abrasion from 1,000 to 9,000 km in the last seven years.
To see the land use change, it is using the land use change from field farm to the other purpose. There is a reducing of land use change in Bali. It is reduce 593 ha as large as 0,72 %. In 2003, the land use change in Bali reached 82.644 ha, and in 2004 reached 82.053 ha. This is the result of land use change from wet land to dry land. Therefore in 2006 the large of paddy field is 81.210 ha and the other is dry land.
In order to see the degradation of environment in Bali, here is the data of vegetation coverage of forest area in Bali from 1999/2000 – 2003/2004. The trend of the land use can be seen from this figure.
The degraded land in Bali is increasingly every year. In 2004 it reaches 48.249,50 ha. Hence, in 2003 the large of degraded land is 48.607,50 ha and in 2002 reaches 49.307,50 ha. The degraded area is the result of lack of water, forest fire and illegal logging. The volume of illegal logging gets increase every year.
Tourism activities as same as other economy sector need the intervention of government to control the development and planning. The demand of tourism planning typically arises in response to the existing or anticipated negative effects of tourism at the local level, as well as increased attention on the potential benefits economic and regional development (Hall, 2000; Gunn, 1988). Government planning can be the essential to the development of sustainable tourism when we concerned with maximizing social, economic and environmental potential.
The continued of this industry and its associated tendency to overcrowding, progresses in line with a stronger environmental awareness of consumers who will increasingly demand cleaner, safer and more environment-friendly tourist destinations. These two trends, one qualitative and the other qualitative, make it imperative to develop and manage sustainable tourism industry.
– Francesco Frangially, Secretary-General, World Tourism Organization (1998)
Indonesian government realizes about the condition. However they still wait and see to apply the regulation and policy to come up with the effect of climate change problem. There three level of policy of Republic of Indonesia, i.e National level, Provision level and Regency level. Since R.I implemented the decentralization government (called: Local Autonomy) the Regency level has the power to apply the regulation for their local authority.
The regional development policy in Bali is not separate from the sustainable development principle like as what they put in the mission in website. It explains that the government uses the National Agenda 21 (Agenda Nasional 21) and Regional Agenda 21. This agenda is trying to integrate the economy and social development. Besides that, the development paradigm is friendly to environment and it has the holistic character pushes the local government to make the better “Good Government”. It considers the environment cost and the cost of supply for natural resources.
Related to the tourism destination, the Bali Province Government No:3, 2005 stated that the area will be decided to be the tourism area if it has the scenery, the high society and culture, have the potency to attract the tourist, the heritage sites, potency infrastructure and the other alternative that can supply for the tourism effective area.
Applying the regulation and policy need several process and time. It is beginning with planning that includes all stakeholders that interest and relate to the issue. Then, they need to do the research to account the marginal benefit (MB) and marginal cost (MC). When the marginal benefit is higher than marginal cost, government should apply the regulation, but when the marginal cost is higher than marginal cost, the government needs to reverse the regulation. Sometime the counting of MB and MC faces a lot of problems because of the difference perspective in view the budgeting.
The five elements of tourism; attraction, transportation, accommodation, facility and infrastructure in Bali seems affect to climate change. However, there is no precise studies that answer the question about the contribution to climate change.
The environmental problem in Bali is related to the abrasion of sea to the mainland because the sea level is increase. Meanwhile, the local environmental problems also happen in Bali like as pollution, deforestation, and land use change. Therefore the government makes several policies regarding to solve the problem. However at this time the policy is in process.
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